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Based on this testimony, nineteen alleged witches were put to death and a dozen others avoided executions by testifying to witchery, that which was not. lived with her grandmother Rosemary Rouse on the Yankton Sioux Reservation in Marty, South Dakota, during the summer and fall of 1994. She had been unhappy about living with her grandmother and had wanted to stay with her mother. After living with her foster mother for several months, R. told Jordan that she was having nightmares and that she had been sexually abused. Here, we deal with a social science in which the research, theories and opinions cannot have the exactness of hard science methodologies such as blood tests, DNA, spectrographic evidence or chemical exposures with which Daubert dealt. While closed circuit television, other security procedures at the courthouse, and disallowing the children to see any family members before the trial did not amount to trial error, those procedures served to reinforce the children's “bad men” stereotype of their uncles, the defendants.5. The second law enforcement (January 21) interview took place at the United States Attorney's Office with the Assistant United States Attorney present. Later, Kelson utilized play therapy and art media, and apparently dream journals. Underwager testified that exposing children to these materials suggests to them that the authority figure wants information about sex.6. Children will lie for personal gain, and material and psychological rewards need not be of a large magnitude to be effective. Here, the children were promised picnics, vacations and even a chance to return home as a reward for their “truthful,” successful testimony at trial. As mentioned above, Kelson reported that she talked to the group in “talk circle”; that the group seemed to have discussed an agenda among themselves each week and that T. The Ceci-Bruck article's summary relating to interviewing of children stated: The studies on interviewing provide evidence that suggestibility effects are influenced by the dynamics of the interview itself, the knowledge or beliefs possessed by the interviewer (especially one who is unfamiliar with the child), the emotional tone of the questioning, and the props used. Ed.2d 666 (1990) (Scalia, J., dissenting) (detailing injustice caused by erroneous testimony of children who were separated from their parents for months and repeatedly interrogated and noting “[s]ome studies show that children are substantially more vulnerable to suggestion than adults, and often unable to separate recollected fantasy (or suggestion) from reality”); Lindsay & Johnson, Reality Monitoring and Suggestibility: Children's Ability to Discriminate Among Memories From Different Sources, in Children's Eyewitness Memory 92 (S. Rejection by the Trial Court of Testimony regarding inter-child sexual activity The defendants sought to introduce testimony regarding substantial inter-child sexual activity by and between the children in question and other children in Marty, South Dakota on the reservation.

This case, of course, is not a Salem witch hunt, but that history must remind us that memory, particularly children's memory, may be falsely induced. Jordan scheduled an appointment with counsellor Ellen Kelson. R.-an interview which she did not audio or video tape-Kelson immediately contacted the Department and reported that a number of children at the Rouse residence had been sexually abused. As observed in a recent article, Daubert principles may not fully apply to certain social science evidence. The use of anatomical dolls or sexually explicit materials will not necessarily provide reliable evidence as children may be encouraged to engage in sexual play with dolls, etc., even if the child has not been sexually abused, and further no normative data exists on non-abused children's use of dolls. “[A] major conclusion is that contrary to the claims of some, children sometimes lie when the motivational structure is tilted toward lying.” Id. Patterns of bribes for disclosures, implied threats in nondisclosures, or insinuations that peers have already told investigators of suspects' abusive behavior are highly suggestive. They were told they could not go home until their uncles had been successfully removed. In several cases where convictions have been overturned, children were shown to have talked with one another about the abuse, sometimes even siblings questioned siblings to get them to “open up” or provide incriminating evidence. Children attempt to be good conversational partners by complying with what they perceive to be the belief of their questioner. Particularly, an eleven-year-old boy who lived in the Rouse home told investigators that he and T. had sex for a long time, and other children corroborated this testimony.

Koliner helped to prosecute Mohammed Sharif Alaboudi, a South Dakotan convicted of sex trafficker who is now serving four life terms in prison.

Material from the Associated Press was used in this report.

The appellants raise twelve allegations of error in the trial of the case. Almost all the other literature presented to the court is consistent with the Ceci-Bruck article.

The jury acquitted the defendants of the remaining charges. Underwager can produce biased, untrue or false memories in children, and more particularly young children.

Heege, argued, Sioux Falls, SD, for Garfield Feather in No. Some of the evidence presented in the case suggests that the children may have had induced memories that sexual abuse occurred. The standard of review for admission of expert testimony is abuse of discretion. Not only did the questions call only for yes or no answers, the children were asked only if they remembered reporting abuse to law enforcement officers, doctors, and their therapist, rather than whether they remembered the alleged abuse itself. Children desire to comply or cooperate with the respected authority figure interviewer and will attempt to make answers consistent with what they see as the intent of the questioner rather than consistent with their knowledge of the event even if the question is bizarre. The FBI agents were also strong authority figures-the kind of high status interviewers described by Dr. Ed.2d 385 (1991) (evidence of battered child syndrome related to intent and its admission did not violate due process); United States v. Id.“Finally, in our landmark case of [United States v. In assessing the prejudice from the exclusion of this evidence, we do so against the backdrop of other alleged errors depriving these defendants of a fair trial. This discretionary ruling is not error, but highlights the importance of the children's testimony and the prejudice to defendants caused by the court's refusal to admit Dr. Soon after these children were removed from their homes, the Department arranged for some of them to undergo a medical examination by Dr. are suspicious for sexually acquired trauma; that labial injury would be a significant finding in diagnosing sexual abuse, but that most of the conditions observed by the doctors offered by the prosecution-such as redness, erythema, neovascularization, vaginal furrows and ridges, a “gaping hymen,” a “hymenal notch,” “clue cells,” “relaxed anal tone,” and “anal folds,” were of no significance in evaluating whether sex abuse had occurred, and are found in a high percentage of non-abused children. The literature in this area, see Jan Bays & David Chadwick, Medical Diagnosis of the Sexually Abused Child, 17 Child Abuse & Neglect 91, 92, 95, 103 (1993), indicates that frequently findings on examination of children allegedly sexually abused are no different than similar findings on children who most likely have not been subject to sexual abuse.

Haugaard, argued, Sioux Falls, SD, for Russell Hubbeling in No. The crucial issue for determination by the jury was this-did the young children testify from their own memory of events or was a false memory induced during investigation by the methods by which those children were interrogated? Ed.2d 12 (1993) (summarily remanding case for reconsideration in light of Daubert where expert testimony about reliability of eye witness testimony at issue). A subject's, particularly a child's, original verbal answers are better remembered than the actual events themselves, yes-no questioning leads to more error, and young children are particularly vulnerable to coaching and leading questions. Even though the children testified by television outside the presence of defendants, the prosecutor asked suggestive questions. Interviewer bias can skew results as a child will often attempt to reflect the interviewer's interpretation of events, particularly when more than one interviewer shares the same presuppositions. Here, these children were taken from their homes on the basis of a five-year-old's statements, and were placed under the sole supervision and influences of Donna Jordan, Jean Brock, and Ellen Kelson-interviewers who had decided at the outset that all the children had been sexually abused. We concluded that an expert may inform the jury of the characteristics of sexually abused children generally and may describe characteristics exhibited by the alleged victim, but may not state an opinion that abuse has in fact occurred. We stated that expert opinions are not inadmissible merely because they embrace the ultimate issue to be decided by the trier of fact, but they cannot be phrased in terms of inadequately explored legal criteria or merely tell the jury what result to reach. The district court erred in excluding that important testimony. Rejected Medical Examination Although the medical evidence was inconclusive and the examiners took no pictures, the district court denied defendants' requests for further medical examinations. Ferrell was not qualified based on training or experience to perform a colposcopic examination of a child; his training was outdated; photographic evidence in such cases is frequently dispositive, very helpful, and perhaps essential; and a further physical examination of the children would be very helpful.

Drive on,'” Kevin Koliner, a federal prosecutor, told the Associated Press.Jean Brock, a social worker for the Department, transported the children to Jordan's foster home, and told the children it was their uncles' fault that they were being taken away because the uncles were doing “bad things” to them. The discussion in the case does not apply to “technical, or other specialized knowledge[,]” but only to “scientific knowledge.” Id. City of Detroit, 25 F.3d 1342, 1349 (6th Cir.1994), cert. Children in studies and in actual cases have shown that peer pressure or interaction with other children has effects on the accuracy of their reporting: they will provide an inaccurate response when other children have “already told” in order to go along with a peer group or be part of the crowd. They are usually questioned repeatedly within and across sessions, sometimes about an ambiguous event by a variety of interviewers, each with their own agenda and beliefs. The authors conclude with these comments: Our review of the literature indicates that children can indeed be led to make false or inaccurate reports about very crucial, personally experienced, central events.․Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to examine the conditions prevalent at the time of a child's original report about a criminal event in order to judge the suitability of using that child as a witness in the court. The children themselves provided a source of this information because after weeks of interrogation and “counselling,” the sex abuse accusations expanded to include all sorts of family members including the grandmother.On her initial intake sheet, Brock noted that “the children love the adults,” but that the home was messy. Children are sometimes interviewed formally and informally for many months preceding an official law-enforcement interview with anatomical dolls, providing an opportunity for the child to acquire scripted and stereotypical knowledge about what might have occurred. It seems particularly important to know the circumstances under which the initial report of concern was made, how many times the child was questioned, the hypotheses of the interviewers who questioned the child, the kinds of questions the child was asked, and the consistency of the child's report over a period of time. This well may have been fantasy and bears on the reliability of the government's case against these defendants.“We can no longer say this is rural, safe South Dakota,” Jenise Pischel, program coordinator at Our Home Inc., a non-profit that helps trafficked girls, told the Associated Press.“It’s happening in the quietest of places across our nation, not just here.”After investigating suspicious ads on the Web, state officials asked for federal resources and began educating locals, such as motel and hotel workers, on the typical characteristics of trafficked women.

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